- 1 Where does the cinchona tree originate?
- 2 Why is cinchona called Peruvian bark?
- 3 How was Peruvian bark discovered?
- 4 Which country is the largest producer of cinchona?
- 5 Why is quinine banned?
- 6 Which tree produces quinine?
- 7 What does quinine do to the body?
- 8 Is Cinchona the same as quinine?
- 9 Is Cinchona officinalis the same as quinine?
- 10 What tree does chloroquine come from?
- 11 What are the side effects of quinine?
- 12 Where is quinine obtained from?
- 13 Who made quinine in India?
- 14 In which natural region Cinchona grows?
- 15 Who discovered Cinchona bark?
Where does the cinchona tree originate?
The cinchona – a large shrub or small tree – is indigenous to South America. In the 19th century it could be found along the west coast from Venezuela in the north to Bolivia in the south. Its bark, also known as Peruvian Bark or Jesuit’s Bark, is renowned for its medicinal properties.
Why is cinchona called Peruvian bark?
Jesuit’s bark, also known as cinchona bark, Peruvian bark or China bark, is a former remedy for malaria, as the bark contains quinine used to treat the disease.
How was Peruvian bark discovered?
In 1630, Juan Lopez, a missionary Jesuit, learned of the bark from Pedro Leiva, chieftain of the Malacatos tribe. He, and probably other Jesuits, took the knowledge of the bark back to their headquarters, St Paul’s at Lima, then the central college of the order in Peru.
Which country is the largest producer of cinchona?
Cinchona started to be distributed worldwide in the second part of the 19th Century. Around 1880, Sri Lanka had become a major producer of cinchona bark, albeit of low quality. By 1895 it had been superseded by the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) as the main producer, mainly because of the better quality of the bark ( C.
Why is quinine banned?
In early 2007, FDA banned all prescription quinine products other than Qualaquin. FDA acted in this manner because of a perception that quinine is not effective for this condition and that its risk potential far exceeds its efficacy potential.
Which tree produces quinine?
Quinine, as a component of the bark of the cinchona (quina-quina) tree, was used to treat malaria from as early as the 1600s, when it was referred to as the “Jesuits’ bark,” “cardinal’s bark,” or “sacred bark.” These names stem from its use in 1630 by Jesuit missionaries in South America, though a legend suggests
What does quinine do to the body?
Quinine is a common treatment for malaria. Some people believe that it can also help with leg cramps and restless legs syndrome. Quinine comes from the bark of the cinchona tree. This tree is native to central and South America, as well as some islands in the Caribbean and western parts of Africa.
Is Cinchona the same as quinine?
Cinchona bark contains quinine, which is a medicine used to treat malaria. It also contains quinidine which is a medicine used to treat heart palpitations (arrhythmias).
Is Cinchona officinalis the same as quinine?
Cinchona officinalis is a medicinal plant, one of several Cinchona species used for the production of quinine, which is an anti-fever agent. It is especially useful in the prevention and treatment of malaria. Other alkaloids that are extracted from this tree include cinchonine, cinchonidine and quinidine.
What tree does chloroquine come from?
Cinchona, quinine and chloroquine Since its discovery in the 17th century, the bark of the Andean cinchona tree and its chemical constituents, known as quinoline alkaloids (quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cinchonidine), provided the only treatment for malaria for over 300 years.
What are the side effects of quinine?
Mild headache, flushing, unusual sweating, nausea, ringing in the ears, decreased hearing, dizziness, blurred vision, and temporary changes in color vision may occur.
Where is quinine obtained from?
Quinine is extracted from the bark of a seven or eight-year-old tree, when the yield is highest. In addition to quinine, over 35 alkaloids have been isolated from the cinchona bark, which are used for various purposes.
Who made quinine in India?
In February 2020, Yonzome joined the government factory for processing quinine at Mungpoo in Darjeeling, as an Assistant Quinologist, a position created in the late 19th century in colonial India. The factory is the only of its kind in India.
In which natural region Cinchona grows?
They belong to the rainforest region of South America and the tropical rainforests of Sumatra, the Himalayas, India, Nepal and Java, and Indonesian island. Explanation: Cinchona plants are large shrubs or small trees; they have evergreen foliage and grow 5–15m in height.
Who discovered Cinchona bark?
In the early 18th century, botanical expeditions were arranged in search of the most valuable Cinchona species for cultivation. The content of quinine was impor- tant, and determination of quinine was realized when Pierre Pelletier and Joseph Caventou isolated the alkaloid from the bark in 1820.