- 1 Why do Peruvian fisheries decline typically dramatically in El Niño years?
- 2 What is the relationship between surface currents and the climate of adjacent continents?
- 3 Why are western boundary currents so fast and deep?
- 4 When the surface currents move water away from the continents and it is replaced by water from cooler depths we term the process?
- 5 How long do El Ninos last?
- 6 Does El Niño cause drought?
- 7 What are the two main categories of ocean currents?
- 8 How does latitude affect climate?
- 9 Which current completely encircles the globe?
- 10 What are the 3 types of ocean currents?
- 11 What is the difference between eastern and western boundary currents?
- 12 What is the fastest major surface current in the world?
- 13 What should you do if you get stuck in a rip current Why?
- 14 What is the most important cause of surface currents?
- 15 How do gyres affect climate?
Why do Peruvian fisheries decline typically dramatically in El Niño years?
Why do Peruvian fisheries decline – often dramatically – in El Nino years? The trade winds blow from the normally high-pressure area over the eastern Pacific (near Central and South America) to the normally stable low-pressure area over the western Pacific (north of Australia).
What is the relationship between surface currents and the climate of adjacent continents?
What is the relationship between surface currents and the climate of the adjacent continents? warm water flows to higher latitudes, transfers heat to the air cools flows back to low latitudes and repeat, the because of the massive calorie energy used it can transfer heat to nearby continents.
Why are western boundary currents so fast and deep?
In fact, they are among the fastest surface currents in the ocean. One reason for the westward intensification of boundary currents has to do with the strengthening of the Coriolis effect with latitude. A steeper ocean-surface slope translates into a faster geostrophic flow on that side of the gyre.
When the surface currents move water away from the continents and it is replaced by water from cooler depths we term the process?
Conditions are optimal for upwelling along the coast when winds blow along the shore. Winds blowing across the ocean surface push water away. Water then rises up from beneath the surface to replace the water that was pushed away. This process is known as “upwelling.”
How long do El Ninos last?
El Niño and La Niña episodes typically last 9-12 months. They both tend to develop during the spring (March-June), reach peak intensity during the late autumn or winter (November-February), and then weaken during the spring or early summer (March-June).
Does El Niño cause drought?
One such phenomenon is the periodic occurrence of El Niño. During El Niño episodes the normal patterns of tropical precipitation and atmospheric circulation are disrupted, hence triggering extreme climate events around the globe: droughts, floods and affecting the intensity and frequency of hurricanes.
What are the two main categories of ocean currents?
Currents. There are two main types of ocean currents: currents driven mainly by wind and currents mainly driven by density differences. Density depends on temperature and salinity of the water.
How does latitude affect climate?
1. Latitude or distance from the equator – Temperatures drop the further an area is from the equator due to the curvature of the earth. As a result, more energy is lost and temperatures are cooler.
Which current completely encircles the globe?
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is the most important current in the Southern Ocean, and the only current that flows completely around the globe. The ACC, as it encircles the Antarctic continent, flows eastward through the southern portions of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans.
What are the 3 types of ocean currents?
Oceanic currents are driven by three main factors:
- The rise and fall of the tides. Tides create a current in the oceans, which are strongest near the shore, and in bays and estuaries along the coast.
- Wind. Winds drive currents that are at or near the ocean’s surface.
- Thermohaline circulation.
What is the difference between eastern and western boundary currents?
To move the same volume of water through each side, western boundary currents are faster, deeper, and narrower than eastern boundary currents. In the same way, western boundary currents are not only faster, but also deeper than eastern boundary currents, as they move the same volume through a narrower space.
What is the fastest major surface current in the world?
Off the Atlantic seaboard of the United States, the Gulf Stream flows at a rate nearly 300 times faster than the typical flow of the Amazon River. The velocity of the current is fastest near the surface, with the maximum speed typically about 5.6 miles per hour (nine kilometers per hour).
What should you do if you get stuck in a rip current Why?
If you do get caught in a rip current, the best thing you can do is stay calm. It’s not going to pull you underwater, it’s just going to pull you away from shore. Call and wave for help. You want to float, and you don’t want to swim back to shore against the rip current because it will just tire you out.
What is the most important cause of surface currents?
Currents are caused by winds, gravity, and variations in water density in different parts of the ocean. Wind is the most important cause of surface currents. When strong, sustained winds blow across the sea, friction drags a thin layer of water into motion.
How do gyres affect climate?
Ocean gyres are present in every ocean and move water from the poles to the equator and back again. The water warms at the equator and cools at the poles. Because ocean water temperatures can transfer to the air, the cold and warm waters circulated by the gyres influence the climate of nearby landmasses.